by Daniel T.
- All science is social. It begins with a research hypothesis that emerges from previous observations described in publications or learned through correspondence. The research program is funded by either for-profit corporations or government/non-profit agencies. Industry funding for research and development outpaces governmental funding, but most industry research is unpublished — these are company secrets. For academic research (i.e. government-funded) and some industry research, scientific publishing is the ultimate means of disseminating your findings. Like any means of publishing, a manuscript is prepared by the researchers. Based on the research area and the perceived importance of the work, scientists submit their work to a particular journal. The manuscript is assigned to an editor who decides if the manuscript is a fit for the journal. If not, the manuscript is rejected, and the authors decide on a new journal. If yes, the manuscript is sent to a number of experts in the particular research field for peer-review. Based on their feedback, the editor can accept the manuscript for publication or request that the manuscript be modified before a second round of peer-review. The final type-set manuscript is either made freely available if published in an open-access journal or otherwise hidden behind a paywall.